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Federal Technology Alert” publication titled Non-Chemical Technologies for Scale and Hardness Control.

* BSRIA Technical Notes TN 6/96. Ionisation water treatment for hot and cold water services.

* Albright C F. Development of an electrolytic silver ion generator. Manned spacecraft centre, National Aeronautics and space Admin., Houston, Texas. 67-2158 June 1967.

* Yahya et al. Disinfection of bacteria in water systems by using electrolytically generated copper and silver. Dept. of Microbiol and Immuno. 1989. University of Arizona.

* Cecil W Chambers et al. Bactericidal effect of low silver concentrations. Journal of AWWA, 1962, 208-216.

* Department of Environment Project 781.30/2 BSRIA. Ionisation water treatment for hot and cold water services.

* Cliver D O. Biocidal effects of silver. Contract NAS 9-9300, final tech. report, 1971.

* B O Oliver, R Luddy. NASA. Study if silver ions can kill or inactivate microbial and viral agents in pure water.

* Chambers C W. New colloidal silver disinfection effects. Industry Engineering Chemistry 45:2569, 1953.

* Thurman R B and Gerba C P (1989) The molecular mechanism of copper and silver ion disinfection of bacteria and viruses. CRC Critical Rev. In Environ. Control 18, 295-315.

* Totsuka A and Ohtaki K (1974) The effects of amino acids and metals on the infectivity of poliovirus ribonucleic acid. Japanese J of Microbiol. 18, 107.

* Schindler P W. Surface complexion in metal ions in biological systems. 18, Sigel H, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984, 105.

* Sterritt R M and Lester J N. Interactions of heavy metals with bacteria, Sci. Total Environ., 14, 5, 1980.

* Wuhrmann K, and Zobirst F, 1958. Bactericidal effect of silver in water. Schwiez. Z. Hydrol. 20: 218-254.

* Lee K Landeen, Moyasar T Yahya, Susan M Kutx and Charles P Gerba. Microbiological evaluation of copper:silver disinfection units for use in swimming pools. Wat Sci. Tech. Vol 21, N0 3, pp. 267-270, 1989.

* Bosch A. Disinfection of human enteric viruses in water by copper and silver and reduced chlorine. Water Sci. Tech. Vol. 27, no 3-4, 351-356, 1993.

* Cassells J M. Efficacy of combined system of copper and silver and free chlorine. Wat Sci. Tech. Vol 31, no 5-6, 119-122, 1995.

* Landeen L K, Yahya M T, Gerba C P. Efficacy of copper and silver ions and reduced levels of free chlorine in inactivation of Legionella Pneumophila. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1989: 55: 3045-50.

* Zeming L. Controlled evaluation of copper and silver ionisation in eradication of Legionella Pneumophila. Jor. Inf. Dis. 169, 919-22, 1994. Cliver D O, Focil W K, and Goepfert J M. Biocidal effects of silver. Final Technical Report. Contract NAS-9300. University of Wisconsin, Medison, February 1971.

* Grier N. Silver and its compounds in disinfection, sterilisation and preservation. Block SS, ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1983, 375.

* Ricketts C R. Mechanisms of prophylaxis by silver compounds against infection of burns, Br. Med. J., 2, 444, 1970.

* Yahya M T. Inactivation of MS-2 and poliovirus by copper, silver and chlorine, 1991.

* Domek M J. Evidence for the role of copper in the injury process of coliforms. App. and Env. Microbiol., 1984, 283-293.

* Liu Z, Stout J E, Tedesco L, Boldin M, Hwang C, Diven W F, Yu V L. Controlled evaluation of copper:silver ionisation in eradicating legionella from a hospital water distribution system. J. Infect. Dis. 1994; 169:919922.

* Lin Y S E, Vidic R D, Stout J E, Yu V L. Individual and combined effects of copper and silver and silver ions on inactivation of Legionella Pneumophila. Water Research 1996. 8:905-913.

* Liu Z, Stout J E, Boldin M, Rugh J, Diven W F, Yu V L. Intermittent use of copper-silver ionisation for legionella control in water distribution systems: a potential option in buildings housing low risk individuals. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1998;26:138-140.

* J V Lee, J L Crowley, A Colville, and A Kirby. The use of copper and silver ions for the control of Legionella species in domestic hot water systems. PHLS Water and Environmental Unit and Estates Department. University Hospital, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom, September 1994.

* F Selenka, U Roth, M Volker. Investigations into legionella decontamination of an affected hot water circuit using Ag/Cu ions. Institution of Hygiene and Microbiology

* N Dolson, Dr John Lee. Silver and Copper ionisation, treatment of water to reduce the risk of legionella in NHS. Health Estate Journal May 1997

* N Biras, T Foster. The use of ionisation to control legionella in hot water. R52.109 Research Abstract March 1998

* Y T Moyasar, K Lee. Disinfection of bacteria in water systems by using electrolytically generated copper and silver. Can. Journal Microbiology vol 36. 1990

* Dr T Smith. Silver Bullet. HD Jan 1999

* T M Straub, C P Gerba. Inactivatiob of bacteriophage MS-2 and poliovirus in Copper, galvanised and PVC pipes. Int. Journal of Environmental Health vol. 1. 1991

* Y T Moyasar, T M Straub. Inactivation of coliphage, MS-2 and poliovirus by copper, silver and chlorine. Can. Journal of Microbiology vol. 38. 1992

* Evidence for the role of copper in the injury process of coliform bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology vol. 48/2. August 1984

* D C Liebe, J E Stuehr. Copper - DNA denaturation 1. Vol 11 p 145-166 1972

* D C Liebe, J E Stuehr. Copper - DNA denaturation 2. Vol 11 p 167-184 1972

* HSC publishes consultative document on revision of legionella

* D T Siggs. Copper and silver ionisation in the eradication of legionella. Cranfield Biotechnology Centre. October 1997. M.Sc.Thesis

* S D Brown. Investigation into the suitability of using water ionized with copper and silver to treat E-Coli infection in slaughtering house. 1998. Cranfield Biotechnology Centre. M. Sc. Thesis.

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